recent Publications

Coming soon...

Cram, F. (2022). Designing Indigenous qualitative research for policy implementation. In U. Flick (Ed.), The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research Design.

Cram, F. (forthcoming). Indigenous evaluation: Recapturing the ordinariness of being Indigenous.

Cram, F. & Adcock, A. (forthcoming). Kaupapa Māori Research.

Cram, F. & Chouinard, J. (forthcoming). A journey through culturally responsive approaches to Indigenous evaluation.

2021

Adcock, A., Cram, F., Edmonds, L. & Lawton, B. (2021). He Tamariki Kokoti Tau: Families of Indigenous infants talk about their experiences of preterm birth and neonatal intensive care. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18, 9835. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189835.

Adcock, A., Cram, F. & Lawton, B. (2021). "It feels real good having my own space" - Young Māori mothers in the E Hine study talk about housing. In K. Saville-Smith, & G. Walker (Eds.), Special edition: Housing at the heart of place, people and population - Ko te whare noho kei te iho o te wāhi, te tangata me te taupori. New Zealand Population Review, 47, 171-197.

Adcock, A., Stevenson, K., Cram, F., MacDonald, E.J., Gellar, S., Hermens, J. & Lawton, B. (2021). He Tapu Te Whare Tangata (sacred house of humanity): Under- screened Māori women talk about HPV self-testing cervical screening clinical pathways. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijgo.13873.

Cram, F. (2021). Mahi Aroha: Māori work in times of trouble and disaster as an expression of a love for the people. Kōtuitui: New Zealand Journal of Social Sciences Online. doi: 10.1080/1177083X.2021.187919181.

Cram, F. & Adcock, A. (2021). Indigenous ways of knowing and participatory research. In D. Burns, J. Howard & S.M. Ospina (Eds.) The SAGE Handbook of Participatory Research and Enquiry. London: SAGE. pp. 108-124.

Cram, F., Cannell, H. & Gulliver, P. (2021). Getting the story right: Reflecting on an Indigenous rubric to guide the interpretation of mortality data. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. DOI: 10.1177/08862605211042565.

Cram, F., Cram, S., Munro, M. & Tawhai, S. (2021). Awhi mai, awhi atu: Giving and receiving support during the 2020 COVID-19 lockdown. Report for Building Better Homes, Towns and Cities, Affordable Housing for Generations, June 2021, Wellington: BBHTC.

Cram, F., Emery, T., Aydon-Pou, V., Makoare, Z., Morrison, K., Munro, M., Pohatu, L., Pohatu, N., Pohatu, T.K. & Te Huia, B. (2021). Poipoia te kākano, kia puāwai: Nurturing the seed of community-based Māori housing research. Scope. Contemporary Research Topics: Kaupapa Kāi Tahu, 6, 22-32. https://doi.org/10.34074/scop.2006001

Cram, F. & Tawhai, S. (2021). Place-Based Housing and Urban Development Pilot – Hastings: Reducing the number of tamariki living in unhealthy homes or at risk of homelessness. Evaluation report. Prepared for Hawke’s Bay District Health Board. Auckland: Katoa Ltd.

Edmonds, L.K., Sibanda, N., Geller, S., Cram, F., Robson, B., Filoche, S., Storey, F., Gibson-Helm, M. & Lawton, B. (2021). He Tamariki Kokoti Tau: Tackling preterm incidence and outcomes of preterm births by ethnicity in Aotearoa New Zealand 2010-2014. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijgo.13855.

Hickey, S., Roe, Y., Ireland, S., Kildea, S., Haora, P., Gao, Y., Maypilama, E., Kruske, S., Campbell, S., Moore, S., Maidment, S., Heinemann, K., Hartz, D. and the IBUS and BOOST study teams, Adcock, A., Storey, F., Bennett, M. , Lambert, C., Sibanda, N., Lawton, B., Cram, F., Stevenson, K., Lavoie, J., Edmonds, L., Geller, S., Bourrassa, C., Smylie, J., Van Wagner, V., Bourgeois, C., Dion Fletcher, C., King, A., Briggs, M., Worner, F., Wellington, C., Carson, A., Nelson, C., Watego, K., Brown-Lolohea, K., Colman, K., Currie, J., Lowell, A., Chamberlain, C., Geia, L. & J. Sherwood (2021). A call for action that cannot go to voicemail: Research activism to urgently improve Indigenous perinatal health and wellbeing. Women and Birth, 43(4), 303-305, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wombi.2021.03.011

James, B.L., Coleman, T.M., Cram, F., Bates, L. & Kearns, R. (2021). Pathways to renting among older former homeowners | Ngā ara ki te rēti whare i waenga i te hunga aātāpuputu i pupuri whare i mua. In K. Saville-Smith, & G. Walker (Eds.), Special edition: Housing at the heart of place, people and population - Ko te whare noho kei te iho o te wāhi, te tangata me te taupori. New Zealand Population Review, 47, 225-261.

Lawton, B., Storey, F., Sibanda, N., Bennett, M., Lambert, C., Geller, S., Edmonds, L., & Cram, F. (2021). He Korowai Manaaki (Pregnancy Wraparound Care): Protocol for a cluster randomized clinical trial. JMIR Research Protocol, 10(1):e18154 doi: 10.2196/18154 PMID: 33512321

MacDonald, E.J., Geller, S., Sibanda, N., Stevenson, K., Denmead, L., Adcock, A., Cram, F., Hibma, M., Sykes, P. & Lawton, B. (2021). Reaching under-screened/never-screened indigenous peoples with human papilloma virus self-testing: A community-based cluster randomised controlled trial. Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol, 61, 135-141. doi: 10.1111/ajo.13285

Makoare, G.D., Makoare, Z.H. & Cram, F. (2021). He kaiwhakatere ahau: A (k)new practice model in the care of rangatahi and whānau. Aotearoa New Zealand Social Work, 33(1), 5-16.

Sharp, T., Samu, T., Trotman, R., Cram, F. & Theodore, M. (2021). Pacific educational success in Aotearoa New Zealand: comparing Ngā Tau Taugnahuru study findings with policy directions and research. Pacific-Asian Education, 32, 59-74.

2020

Chouinard, Jill & Cram, Fiona (2020). Culturally responsive approaches to evaluation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Cram, F. (2020). He mātou whare, he mātou kāinga hoki – a house that is a home for whānau Māori. Report for Building Better Homes, Towns and Cities: Revitalising the Production of Affordable Housing for Productive, Engaged and Healthy Lives. May 2020, 32 pgs. Wellington: BBHTC.

Cram, F. (2020). Mahi aroha: Aroha ki te tangata, he tangata. MAI Journal, 9(4), 3-6. doi: 10.20507/MAIJournal.2020.9.4.1

Cram, F., Adcock, A., O'Brien, M. & Lawton, B. (2020). E Hine: Young Māori mothers talk about welfare benefits. Social Policy and Administration. DOI: 10.1111/spol.12641

Cram, F. & Munro, M. (2020). Life when renting for older Māori. AlterNative: An International Journal of Indigenous Peoples, 16(1), 64-75.

Cram, F., Samu, T., Theodore, R. & Trotman, R. (2020). Māori wnau talk about wnau success: Findings from Round 1 of N Tau Tuangahuru—the ori and Pacific Education Initiative (MPEI) longitudinal study. Evaluation Matters—He Take Te Aromatawai, 6, 146-174.

Filoche, S., Stone, P., Cram, F., Bacharach, S., Dowell, A., Sika-Paotonu, D., Beard, A., Ormandy, J., Buchanan, C., Thunders, M. & Dew, K. (2020). Uncovering social structures and informational prejudices to reduce inequity in delivery and uptake of new molecular technologies. Journal of Medical Ethics. Epub ahead of print: doi:10.1136/medethics-2019-105734. Also read the associated blog post here.

James, B.L., Bates, L., Coleman, T.M., Kearns, R. & Cram, F. (2020). Tenure insecurity, precarious housing and hidden homelessness among older renters in New Zealand. Housing Studies. https://doi.org/10.1080/02673037.2020.1813259

Lawton, B., Heffernan, M., Wurtak, G., Steben, M., Lhaki, P., Cram, F., Blas, M., Hibma, M., Adcock, A., Stevenson, K., Whop, L., Brotherton, J. & Garland, S.M. (2020). IPVS Policy Statement addressing the burden of HPV disease for Indigenous peoples. Papillomavirus Research, 9, 100191.

Stevenson, K., Cram, F., Filoche, S. & Lawton, B. (2020). Impact on whānau wellbeing of transfer to secondary or tertiary hospitals after a disruption to the birthing journey. MAI Journal – A New Zealand Journal of Indigenous Scholarship, 9(2), 121-132. DOI: 10.20507/MAIJournal.2020.9.2.3.

Wilson, D., Crengle, S. & Cram, F. (2020). Improving the quality of mortality review equity reporting: Development of an Indigenous Māori responsiveness rubric. International Journal for Quality in Health Care. https://doi.org/10.1093/intqhc/mzaa084

2019

Adams, D.H., Wilson, S., Heavy Head, R., Cram, F. & Gordon, E.W. (2019). Bridges to "Ceremony at a Boundary Fire": A story of Indigenist knowledge. In E. Armour-Thomas, C. McCallister, A.W. Boykin & E.W. Gordon (Eds.), Human variance and assessment for learning. pp. xiii-xxvi (Foreword). Chicago: Third World Press Foundation.

Adcock, A., Cram, F., Lawton, B., Geller, S., Hibma, M., Sykes, P., MacDonald, E. J., Dallas‐Katoa, W., Rendell, B., Cornell, T., Mataki, T., Rangiwhetu, T., Gifkins, N. and Hart, S. (2019), Acceptability of self‐taken vaginal HPV sample for cervical screening among an under‐screened Indigenous population. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol, 59, 301–307. doi:10.1111/ajo.12933

Adcock, A., Storey, F., Lawton, B., Bennett, M., Lambert, C., Edmonds, L., Stevenson, K., Geller, S. & Cram, F. (2019). He Korowai Manaaki: mapping assets to inform a strength-based, Indigenous-led wrap-around maternity pathway. Australian Journal of Primary Care - https://doi.org/10.1071/PY19029. Published online: 21 October 2019.

Cram, F. (2019). Measuring Māori children's wellbeing: A discussion paper. MAI Journal, 8(1), 16-32. doi:10.20507/MAIJournal.2019.8.1.2

Cram, F., Te Huia, B., Te Huia, T., Williams, M.M. & Williams, N. (2019). Oranga and Māori Health Inequities, 1769-1992. Prepared for the Ministry of Health. Download from the Ministry of Justice here.

Francis, H., Carryer, J., & Cram, F. (2019). Consulting with Māori experts to ensure mainstream health research is inclusive of Māori. Nursing Praxis in New Zealand, 35(3), 7-14. doi: 10.36951/NgPxNZ.2019.010

Short, J., Cram, F., Roguski, M., Smith, R. & Koziol-McLain, J. (2019). Thinking differently: Re-framing family violence responsiveness in the mental health and addictions health care context. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 28, 1206-1216. doh:10.1111/inm.12641.

Wilson, M., Harrow, C., & Cram, F. (2019). Section 70A and children. Research Brief - February 2019. Wellington: Ministry of Social Development & Oranga Tamariki.

2018

Adcock, A., Cram, F. & Lawton, B. (2018). E Hine: Young Māori women's journeys through pregnancy, birth, and motherhood. In D. Akella (Ed.). Socio-cultural influences on teenage pregnancy and contemporary prevention measures. Hershey, PA: IGI Global. pp. 250-272. Request this chapter

Cram, F. (2018). Conclusion: Lessons about Indigenous evaluation. In F. Cram, K. A. Tibbetts, & J. LaFrance (Eds.), Indigenous Evaluation. New Directions for Evaluation. 159, 119–131.

Cram, F. & Hopson, R. (2018). Digging deeper to engage wicked problems through evaluation. In R. Hopson & F. Cram (Eds.), Tackling wicked problems in complex ecologies: The role of evaluation. (pp. 234-256). Redwood City, CA: Stanford University Press.

Cram, F., LaFrance, J. & Tibbetts, K. (2018). Editors’ notes: A stepping stone in Indigenous evaluation. Indigenous Evaluation. New Directions for Evaluation, 159, 7-16. Request this chapter

Cram, F., Pipi, K. & Paipa, K. (2018). 4. Kaupapa Māori evaluation in Aotearoa New Zealand. New Directions for Evaluation - Indigenous Evaluation, 159, 63-77. Request this chapter

Cram, F., Stevenson, K., Geller, S., MacDonald, E.J. & Lawton, B. (2018). A qualitative inquiry into women's experiences of severe maternal morbidity. Kōtuitui: New Zealand Journal of Social Sciences Online.

Cram, F., Vette, M., Wilson, M., Vaithianathan, R., Maloney, T. & Baird, S. (2018). He Awa Whiria - Braided Rivers: Understanding the outcomes from Family Start for Māori. Evaluation Matters - He Take Tō Te Aromatawai, 4, 165-206.

Dhunna, S., Lawton, B. & Cram, F. (2018). An affront to her mana: Young Māori mothers’ experiences of intimate partner violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. First Published On-line December 17, 2018. Request this paper.

Filoche, S., Cram, F., Beard, A., Sim, D., Geller, S., Edmonds, L., Robson, B. & Lawton, B. (2018). He Tamariki Kokoti Tau-Tackling Preterm: A data-linkage methodology to explore the clinical care pathway in preterm deliveries. BMC Health Services Research, 18, 374.

Hopson, R. & Cram, F. (2018). (Editors) Tackling wicked problems in complex ecologies: The role of evaluation. Redwood City, CA: Stanford University Press.

Hopson, R. & Cram, F. (2018). Tackling wicked problems in complex evaluation ecologies. In R. Hopson & F. Cram (Eds.), Tackling wicked problems in complex ecologies: The role of evaluation. (pp. 3-24). Redwood City, CA: Stanford University Press.

Trotman, R., Cram, F., Samu, T., Becroft, M., Theodore, R., Trinick, T. with Pt England Primary School, Manaiakalani, Sylvia Park School, Rise UP Trust, He Puna Marama Trust, Oceania Careers Academy & High Tech Youth (2018). Investing in ‘success’ as Māori and Pacific: The collaborative development of Ngā Tau Tuangahuru, a longitudinal study. Evaluation Matters - He Take Tō Te Aromatawai, 4, 87-100.

Wilson, M. & Cram, F. (2018). Predictive modelling in child welfare – A feasibility study. In M. Tolich & C. Davidson (Eds.), Social science research in New Zealand. Auckland: Auckland University Press. pp.233-248.

2017

Cram, F. (2017). Book Review: Brisolara, S., Seigart, D., & SenGupta, S. (Eds.). (2014). Feminist Evaluation and Research: Theory and Practice. New York, NY: Guilford Press. American Journal of Evaluation, 38(1), 151-155. Find it online

Cram, F. (2017). Kaupapa Māori health research. In P. Liamputtong (Ed.), Handbook of research methods in health and social sciences. Singapore: Springer.

Cram, F. & Cram, A. (2017). Wāhine Activate: Evaluation of a service for young Māori mothers. Prepared for the Ministry of Social Development. Auckland: Katoa Ltd.

Filoche, S.K., Cram, F., Lawton, B.A., Beard, A. & Stone, P. (2017). Implementing non-invasive prenatal testing into a publicly funded antenatal screening services for Down syndrome and other conditions. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 17, 344.

Henwood, C., George, J., Cram, F., & Waititi, H. (2017). Rangatahi Māori and youth justice: Oranga rangatahi. Prepared for Iwi Chairs, with the assistance of Henwood Trust, New Zealand Law Foundation, Todd Foundation. Find the report here

2016

Adcock, A., Lawton, B. & Cram, F. (2016). E Hine: talking about Māori teen pregnancy with government groups. AlterNative: An International Journal of Indigenous Peoples, 12(4), 380-395. DOI: 10.20507/AlterNative.2016.12.4.4. Request a copy

Cram, F. (2016). Older Māori: Downsizing experiences, outcomes and needs. Report on the Māori case study for the 'Finding the Best Fit: Housing, Downsizing and Older People in a Changing Society' research project. Auckland: Katoa Ltd. Find it here


Cram, F. (2016). Lessons on decolonizing evaluation from Kaupapa Māori evaluation. Canadian Journal of Program Evaluation, 30.3 (Special Issue), 296-312. Request a copy

Cram, F. & Mertens, D.M. (2016). Negotiating solidarity between Indigenous and transformative paradigms in evaluation. Evaluation Matters - He Take Tō Te Aromatawai, 2, 161-189.

Lawton, B., Makowharemahihi, C., Cram, F., Robson, B., & Ngata, T. (2016). E Hine: Access to contraception for Indigenous Māori teenage mothers. Journal of Primary Health Care, 8(1), 52-59.

Mertens, D.M. & Cram, F. (2016). Integration tensions and possibilities. Indigenous research and social transformation. International Review of Qualitative Research, 9(2), 185-191.

Stevenson, K., Filoche, S., Cram, F. & Lawton, B. (2016). Lived realities: Birthing experiences of Māori women under 20 years of age. AlterNative: An International Journal of Indigenous Peoples, 12(2), 124-137.

2015

Cram, F. (2015). Harnessing global social justice and social change with multiple and mixed method research. In S.N. Hesse- Biber & R.B. Johnson (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Mixed and Multiple Methods Research. New York: Oxford University Press. pp.667-687.

Cram, F., Cram, A. & Greening, T. (2015). Green Prescription (GRx) Maternal Nutrition: Evaluation report. Prepared by Katoa Ltd for Hawke’s Bay District Health Board.

Cram, F., Gulliver, P., Ota, R. & Wilson, M. (2015). Understanding overrepresentation of Indigenous children in child welfare data: An application of the Drake risk and bias models. Child Maltreatment, 20(3), 170-182. Request a copy

Cram, F., Kennedy, V., Paipa, K., Pipi, K. & Wehipeihana, N. (2015). Being culturally responsive through Kaupapa Maori evaluation. In S. Hood, R. Hopson & H. Frierson (Eds.), Continuing the journey to reposition culture and cultural context in evaluation theory and practice. For the Evaluation and Society Book Series. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing. pp.289-312.

Cram, F. & Mertens, D. (2015). Transformative and Indigenous frameworks for mixed and multi method research. In S.N. Hesse- Biber & R.B. Johnson (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Mixed and Multiple Methods Research. New York: Oxford University Press. pp.99-109.

Cram, F., Sauni, P., Kennedy, V., Field, A., McKegg, A., & Pipi- Takoko, M. (2015). InZone Project evaluation: Evaluation report. Auckland: Centre for Social Impact.

Kennedy, V., Cram, F., Paipa, K., Pipi, K., Baker, M., Porima, L., Sauni, P. & Tuagalu, C. (2015). Beginning a conversation about spirituality in Māori and Pasifika evaluation. In S. Hood, R. Hopson & H. Frierson (Eds.), Continuing the journey to reposition culture and cultural context in evaluation theory and practice. For the Evaluation and Society Book Series. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing. pp.151-178.

Kennedy, V., Cram, F., Paipa, K., Pipi, K. & Baker, M. (2015). Wairua and cultural values in evaluation. Evaluation Matters—He Take Tō Te Aromatawai, 1, 83-111.

Paipa, K., Cram, F., Kennedy, V., & Pipi, K. (2015). Culturally responsive methods for family centered evaluation. In S. Hood, R. Hopson & H. Frierson (Eds.), Continuing the journey to reposition culture and cultural context in evaluation theory and practice. For the Evaluation and Society Book Series. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing. pp.313-334.

2014

Blank, A., Cram, F., Dare, T., De Hann, I., Smith, B. & Vaithianathan, R. (2014). Ethical issues for Māori in predictive risk modelling to identify new-born children who are at high risk of future maltreatment. Paper prepared for the Ministry of Social Development, Wellington.

Cram, F. (2014). Improving Māori access to health care: Research report. Auckland: Katoa Ltd.

Cram, F. (2014). Improving Māori access to cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular health care: Key informant interviews. Auckland: Katoa Ltd.

Cram, F. (2014). Improving Māori access to cancer health care: Literature review. Auckland: Katoa Ltd.

Cram, F. (2014). Improving Māori access to diabetes health care: Literature review. Auckland: Katoa Ltd.

Cram, F. (2014). Improving Māori access to cardiovascular health care: Literature review. Auckland: Katoa Ltd.

Cram, F. (2014). Measuring Māori wellbeing: A commentary. MAI Journal: A New Zealand Journal of Indigenous Scholarship, 3(1), 18- 32.

Cram, F. (2014). Tuahiwi: Whaia i te mana me te mauri. A report prepared for Ngāti Kahungunu Iwi Incorporated. Auckland: Katoa Ltd.

Cram, F., Phillips, H., Sauni, P. & Tuagalu, C. (Eds.), (2014). Māori and Pasifika higher education horizons. H.T. Frierson (Series Ed.), Diversity in higher education. New Milford, CT: Emerald Books.

Cram, F., Sauni, P., Tuagalu, C. & Phillips, H. (2014). He mihi mutunga - Closing words. In F. Cram, H. Phillips, P. Sauni & C. Tuagalu. (Eds.), Māori and Pasifika higher education horizons. H.T. Frierson (Series Ed.), Diversity in higher education. New Milford, CT: Emerald Books.

Makowharemahihi, C., Lawton, B., Cram, F., Ngata, T., Brown, S. & Robson, B. (2014). Initiation of maternity care for young Māori women <20 years of age. New Zealand Medical Journal, 127 (1393).

Phillips, H., Cram, F., Sauni, P. & Tuagalu, C. (2014). Whaia i te maramatanga - Seek knowledge. In F. Cram, H. Phillips, P. Sauni & C. Tuagalu. (Eds.), Māori and Pasifika higher education horizons. H.T. Frierson (Series Ed.), Diversity in higher education. New Milford, CT: Emerald Books.

2013

Cram, F. (2013). He Rangahau Kaupapa Māori: A guide to undertaking a Kaupapa Māori research project. Auckland: Katoa Ltd.

Cram, F., Chilisa, B. & Mertens, D. (2013). The journey begins. In D Mertens, F. Cram & B. Chilisa (Eds.), Indigenous pathways into social research - Voices of a new generation. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press.

Cram, F., Kennedy, V., Kelly-Hepi Te Huia, M. & Paipa, K. (2013). Background papers: Māori medium Initial Teacher Education Outcomes. Graduate profile & Effective practicum and induction experiences. Prepared for the Ministry of Education. Auckland: Katoa Ltd.

Cram, F., Paipa, K., Hona, D. & Cram, A. (2013). Evaluation of ‘Ka Hao te Rangatahi’. A report prepared for the Napier City Council. Auckland: Katoa Ltd.

Jones, B., Ingham, T.R., Cram, F., Dean, S. & Davies, C. (2013). An Indigenous approach to exploring health-related experiences among Māori parents: The Pukapuka Hauora asthma study. BMC Public Health, 13:228 (15 March 2013).

Lawton, B., Cram, F., Makowharemahihi, C., Ngata, T., Robson, B., Brown, S. & Campbell, W. (2013). Developing a Kaupapa Māori research project to help reduce health disparities experienced by young Māori women and their babies. AlterNative - An International Journal of Indigenous Peoples, 9(3), 246-261.

Mertens, D.M., Cram, F. & Chilisa, B.(2013) (Eds.) Indigenous pathways into social research - Voices of a new generation. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press.

2012

Cram, F. (2012). Avaliação, relevância e dinâmica de poder. A Relevância da Avaliação para o Investimento Social Privado. São Paulo: Fundação Santillana.

Cram, F. (2012). Safety of subsequent children - Māori children and whānau. A review of selected literature. Wellington: Families Commission.

Cram, F. & Phillips, H. (2012). Claiming interstitial space for multicultural, transdisciplinary research through community-up values. International Journal of Critical Indigenous Studies, 5(2), 36-49.

Williams, L.R.T. & Cram, F. (2012). What works for Māori - Synthesis of selected literature. Wellington: Department of Corrections.

2011

Cram, F. (2011). Poverty. In T. McIntosh & M. Mulholland (Eds.), Māori and social issues. Wellington: Huia.

Cram, F. (2011). Technical Report - Education workforce census. Paper prepared for the Ministry of Education, October 2011. Auckland: Katoa Ltd.

Cram, F. (2011). Whānau Ora & Action Research. Paper prepared for Te Puni Kōkiri, June 2011. Auckland: Katoa Ltd.

Cram, F. & Kennedy, V. (2011). Kaupapa service delivery - HPC options paper. Prepared by Katoa Ltd on behalf of the Hauora Provider Council. Prepared for Hawke's Bay District Health Board, March 2011.

Cram, F. & Ormond, A. (2011). Vulnerable Pregnant Women's Multidisciplinary Team, Hawke's Bay District Health Board. Evaluation Report. Prepared for the Hawke's Bay District Health Board, December 2011. Auckland: Katoa Ltd.

Kennedy, V., Paipa, K. & Cram, F. (2011). Evaluation of the Kaitoko Whānau initiative. A report prepared for Te Puni Kōkiri. Auckland: Katoa Ltd.

Wehipeihana, N., Oakden, J., Spee, K., Cram, F., Pipi, K. & Porima, L. (2011). Evaluation of the Maori oral health providers project. Wellington: Ministry of Health.

2010

Cram, F. (2010). Appreciative inquiry. MAI Review, Issue 3, Article 4.

Cram, F. (2010). Embedding health equity. A report prepared in March 2010 for Hawke's Bay District Health Board. Auckland: Katoa Ltd.

Cram, F. (2010). Evaluation of the BaSAC (Building a Strategic Alliance Consortium) Project, 2010. A report prepared in July 2010 for the Taitokerau Iwi Chief Executive Consortium. Auckland: Katoa Ltd.

Cram, F. (2010). Health Impact Assessment & Whānau Ora Health Impact Assessment. A guide for Hawke's Bay District Health Board. Prepared in October 2010 for Hawke's Bay District Health Board. Auckland: Katoa Ltd.

Cram, F. (2010). PHARMAC and Māori Responsiveness. Policies, procedures and outcomes. A report prepared in May 2010 for PHARMAC, Wellington.

Cram, F. (2010). Shifting Māori health needs: Maori population trends, health service needs, and medical workforce requirements - issues arising. Research paper. Wellington: Ministry of Health.

Cram, F. & Kennedy, V. (2010). Researching with whānau collectives. MAI Review, Issue 3, Article 1.

Cram, F., Oakden, J. & Wehipeihana, N. (2010). Future directions for a Māori dental therapy workforce. Wellington: Ministry of Health.

Cram, F. & Paipa, K. (2010). Whānau Social Assistance Programme. Evaluation framework – Maara Kai, Kaitoko Whānau, Oranga Whānau. Part 3. Programme description & expanded intervention logics. Report prepared for Te Puni Kōkiri, Wellington by Katoa Ltd, April 2010.

Cram, F., Prendergast, TA, Taupo, K., Phillips, H. & Parsons, M. (2010). Traditional knowledge and decision-making: Māori involvement in aquaculture and biotechnology. In J.S. Te Rito & Healy, S.M. (Eds.), Proceedings of the Traditional Knowledge Conference 2008. Te Tatau Pounamu: The Greenstone Door. June 8-11, 2008, Auckland, New Zealand. Te Pae o te Maramatanga: Auckland. pp.147-157.

Jones, B., Ingham, T., Davies, C. & Cram, F. (2010). Whānau Tuatahi: Māori community partnership research using a Kaupapa Māori methodology. MAI Review, Issue 3.

Kennedy, V. & Cram, F. (2010). Ethics of researching with whānau collectives. MAI Review, Issue 3, Article 2.

Quigley, R., Murphy, C. & Cram, F. (2010). Whānau Ora Health Impact Assessment of the cultural and clinical nursing support and training programme. Prepared for the Hawke’s Bay District Health Board.

2009

Cram, F. (2009). Evaluation of the BaSAC (Building a Strategic Alliance Consortium) Project, 2009. A report prepared in December 2009 for the Taitokerau Iwi Chief Executive Consortium. Auckland: Katoa Ltd.

Cram, F. (2009). JR McKenzie Trust - Te Kāwai Toro Evaluation Report. Prepared for the JR McKenzie Trust. Wellington: Katoa Ltd. See the evaluation summary here.

Cram, F. (2009). Māori and violence: What’s the problem? MAI Review, Issue 2, Article 4.

Cram, F. (2009). Maintaining indigenous voices. In D. Mertens & P. Ginsberg (Eds.), SAGE Handbook of social science research ethics. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE. p.308-322.

Cram, F. & Kennedy, V. (2009). Evaluation of the Workforce Development Trust Programmes. Prepared for the Workforce Development Trust, Hui Taumata Trust. Wellington: Katoa Ltd.

2008

Cram, F. (2008). Evaluation of the BaSAC (Building a Strategic Alliance Consortium) Project, 2008. A report prepared in December 2008 for the Taitokerau Iwi Chief Executive Consortium. Wellington: Katoa Ltd.

Cram, F. (2008). Evaluation of the pre-contract co-production relationship with Te Puni Kōkiri. A report prepared in October 2008 for the Taitokerau Iwi Chief Executive Consortium. Wellington: Katoa Ltd.

Grennell, D. & Cram, F. (2008). Evaluation of Amokura: An indigenous family violence prevention strategy. MAI Review, 2, Article 4.

Kennedy, V., Cram, F. & Wehipeihana, N. (2008). A scoping report to inform a final evaluation of the Child Youth & Family Iwi and Māori Provider Development Fund. Wellington: Research Evaluation Consultancy.

Paipa, K., Kennedy, V. & Cram, F. (2008). Evaluation framework for: He Manu Whakahiato & He Manu Whakahiato Kahukura. Report prepared for the Ministry of Health. Wellington: Katoa Ltd.

Signal, L., Martin, J., Cram, F. & Robson, B. (2008). The Health Equity Assessment Tool: A User’s Guide. Wellington: Ministry of Health.

Simmonds, S., Robson, B., Cram, F. & Purdie, G. (2008). Kaupapa Māori epidemiology. Round Table: New Zealand epidemiology. Australasian Epidemiologist, 15.1, 3-6.

2007

Cram, F. (2007). Māori and public health: Ethics. A discussion paper. Prepared for the Public Health Association. Wellington: Katoa Ltd.

Cram, F. (2007). Occupational safety and health. In B. Robson & R. Harris (Eds.), Hauora: Māori standards of health IV. A study of the years 2000-2005. Wellington: Te Rōpū Rangahau Hauora a Eru Pōmare.

Cram, F. (2007). Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori - Short-term Outcomes 2004-2007. Report by Katoa Ltd for Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori / Māori Language Commission, Wellington.

Cram, F. & Kennedy, V. (2007). Central Region Maori Workforce (MPDS) Profile. An implementation evaluation report developed for Capital and Coast DHB, Wellington. Wellington: Katoa Ltd.

Cram, F. & Wehipeihana, N. (2007). Capacity Assessment Workbook (2nd Ed). Māori and Iwi providers of CYF social services. Wellington: REC Ltd.

Kawakami, A., Aton, K., Cram, F., Lai, M.K. & Porima, L. (2007). Improving the practice of evaluation through indigenous values and methods: Decolonizing evaluation practice – returning the gaze from Hawai’i and Aotearoa. In P. Brandon & N. Smith (Eds.), Fundamental issues in evaluation. New York: Guilford Press. pp.219-242.

Pitama, S., Robertson, P., Cram, F., Gillies, M., Huria, T. & Dallas-Katoa, W. (2007). Meihana Model: A clinical assessment framework. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 36, 118-125.

Robson, B., Cormack, D. & Cram, F. (2007). Social and economic indicators. In B. Robson & R. Harris (Eds.), Hauora: Māori standards of health IV. A study of the years 2000-2005. Wellington: Te Rōpū Rangahau Hauora a Eru Pōmare.

Robson, B., Purdie, G., Cram, F. & Simmonds, S. (2007). Age standardisation – an indigenous standard? Emerging Themes in Epidemiology. An online journal published by BioMed Central.

Signal, L., Bowers, L., McClellan, V., Matheson, A. & Cram, F. (2007). Reducing Health Inequalities in New Zealand: case studies of institutions and policies. A report for the Ministry of Health. Wellington: Department of Public Health & Te Rōpū Rangahau Hauora a Eru Pōmare, University of Otago, Wellington.

2006

Cram, F. (2006). Building the capacity of Māori and Iwi social service providers – A review of the literature II. Research report prepared for the Department of Children, Young Persons and Families. Wellington: Katoa Ltd.

Cram, F. (2006). Māori Potential Stocktake Report. Wellington: Te Puni Kōkiri.

Cram, F. (2006). Talking ourselves up. Alternative: An International Journal of Indigenous Scholarship, Special supplement 2006 – Marginalisation, 28-45.

Cram, F., McCreanor, T., Smith, L., Nairn, R. & Johnstone, W. (2006). Kaupapa Māori research and Pākehā social science: Epistemological tensions in a study of Māori health. Hülili, 3, 41-68.

Cram, F., Taupo, T. & Kennedy, V. (2006). ‘Everyday Communities – Te Taitokerau’ Evaluation Report. Research report prepared for the Department of Children, Young Persons and Families & Amokura. Wellington: Katoa Ltd.

Ormond, A., Cram, F. & Carter, L. (2006). Researching our relations: Reflections on ethics. Alternative: An International Journal of Indigenous Scholarship, Special Supplement 2006 – Marginalisation, 2(1), 174–192.

2005

Cram, F. (2005). Amokura Family Violence Prevention Strategy – Year 1 formative evaluation. An evaluation report prepared for the Family Violence Prevention Consortium, Te Taitokerau. Wellington: Katoa Ltd.

Cram, F. (2005). Amokura Family Violence Prevention Strategy – Research & evaluation plan 2005-2007. An evaluation report prepared for the Family Violence Prevention Consortium, Te Taitokerau. Wellington: Katoa Ltd.

Cram, F. (2005). An ode to Pink Floyd: Chasing the magic of Māori and Iwi providers. In J.S. Te Rito (Series Editor), Tihei Oreore. Monograph Series - Policy Seminars, 1(2), 15-26. Auckland: Ngā Pae o te Māramatanga.

Cram, F. (2005). Backgrounding Māori views on genetic engineering. In J. Barker (Ed.), Sovereignty matters: Locations of contestation and possibility in indigenous struggles for self-determination. Lincoln, NE.: University of Nebraska Press. pp.51-66.

Cram, F. (2005). Evaluation of the ‘Māori Language Information Programme’. An evaluation report prepared for Te Puni Kōkiri. Wellington: Katoa Ltd.

Cram, F. & Kennedy, V. (2005) Evaluation of Children’s Day, Te Ra Te Tamariki 2005. An evaluation report prepared for the Department of Child, Youth and Family. Wellington: Katoa Ltd.

Ormond, A. & Cram, F. (2005). Researching our relations: Reflections on ethics and marginalization. In Ngā Pae o te Māramatanga ‘Tikanga Rangahau Mātauranga Tuku Iho – Traditional Knowledge and Research Ethics’. Conference proceedings, 2004.

2004

Cram, F. (2004). Building the capacity of Māori and Iwi social service providers – A review of the literature. Appendix to the Iwi and Māori Workforce Development Fund Evaluation. Research report prepared for the Department of Children, Young Persons and Families. Wellington: Katoa Ltd.

Cram, F., Phillips, H., Tipene-Matua, B., Parsons, M. & Taupo, T. (2004). A ‘parallel process’? Beginning a constructive conversation about a Māori methodology. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry, 1, 14-19.

Cram, F. & Smith, L. (2004). Māori women talk about accessing health care. He Pukenga Kōrero, 7(2) 1-8.

Cram, F., Wehipeihana, N. & Kennedy, V. (2004). Performance based provider development. Appendix to the Iwi and Māori Workforce Development Fund Evaluation. Research report prepared for the Department of Children, Young Persons and Families.

Cram, F. (2003). ‘Tungia te ururua kia tupu whakaritorito te tupu o te harakeke’. Report on the evaluation of the Whānau Reconciliation Support Service. Research report prepared for the Department of Children, Young Persons and Families. Auckland: IRI.

Pipi, K., Cram, F., Hawke, R., Hawke, S., Huriwai, TeM., Mataki, T., Milne, M., Morgan, K., Tuhaka, H. & Tuuta, T. (2004). A research ethic for studying Māori and iwi provider success. Journal of Social Policy of New Zealand - He Puna Whakaaro, 23, 141-153.

Reid, P. & Cram, F. (2004). Connecting health, people and country in Aotearoa/New Zealand. In K. Dew & P. Davis (Eds.), Health and society in Aotearoa New Zealand. 2nd Edition. Auckland: Oxford University Press. pp.33-48.

2003

Cram, F., Smith, L. & Johnstone, W. (2003). Mapping the themes of Māori talk about health. New Zealand Medical Journal, 116.

Cargo, T. & Cram, F. (2003). Evaluation of the Atawhaingia Te Pa Harakeke Programme. Research report prepared for the Department of Children, Young Persons and Families. Auckland: IRI.

Penehira, M., Cram, F. & Pipi, K. (2003). Kaupapa Māori governance: Literature review & key informant interviews. Prepared for Te Puawai Tapu. Wellington: Katoa Ltd.

Pipi, K., Cram, F., Hawke, R., Hawke, S., Huriwai, TeM., Keefe, V., Mataki, T., Milne, M., Morgan, K., Small, K., Tuhaka, H. & Tuuta, C. (2003). Māori and iwi provider success: A Research report of interviews with successful iwi and Māori providers and government agencies. Wellington: Te Puni Kokiri.

Jackson, S. & Cram, F. (2003). Negotiating/Troubling the sexual double standard: Young women’s talk about heterosexuality. British Journal of Social Psychology, 42, 113-128.

2002

Cram, F. in collaboration with Henare, M., Hunt, T., Mauger, J., Pahiri, D., Pitama, S. & Tuuta, C. (2002). Maori and science – Three case studies. A report prepared for the Royal Society of New Zealand. Auckland: IRI.

Pihama, L., Cram, F. & Walker, S. (2002). Creating methodological space: A literature review of Kaupapa Māori research. Canadian Journal of Native Education, 26, 30-43.

Pihama, L., Cram, F. & Walker, S. (2002). Kaupapa Māori Principles And Practices: A Literature Review. Research Report from IRI, in conjunction with Te Rōpū Rangahau Hauora a Eru Pōmare, to Te Puni Kōkiri, Wellington.

2001

Cargo, T., Cram, F., Dixon, R., Widdowson, D., Adair, V. & Jackson, S. (2001). Evaluation of Programmes for Children Under the Domestic Violence Act 1995. Wellington: Ministry of Justice.

Cram, F. (2001). Ma te wa e whakaatu mai: Time will tell. Feminism & Psychology, 3, 401-406.

Cram, F. (2001) Rangahau Māori: Tona Tika, Tona Pono. In M. Tolich (Ed.), Research Ethics in Aotearoa New Zealand: Concepts, practice, critique. Auckland: Longman. p.35-52.

Cram, F. (2001). D. Health. In Ministry of Women’s Affairs (compiler). Mapping inequalities and pointing ways forward. Wellington: Ministry of Women’s Affairs. p.73-97.

Cram, F., Mane, J. & Turoa, L. (2001). An Evaluation of ‘He Whānau Piripono He Iwi Pakari: Building Block to Peaceful Communities’. Report to the Ministry of Health.

Cram, F., Pihama, L., Jenkins, K. & Karehana, M. (2001). Evaluation of Programmes for Māori Adult Protected Persons Under the Domestic Violence Act 1995. Wellington: Ministry of Justice.

Smith, L., Cram, F., Smith, G.H., Toi, S., Karehana, M. & Kamira, R. (2001). Te Hiringa i te Mahara: Final Evaluation Report. Research Report to Gardiner & Parata Ltd. 91pp. Auckland: IRI.

Simon, J. & Smith, L.T. with Cram, F., Hohepa, M., McNaughton, S. & Stephenson, M. (2001). A civilising mission? Perceptions and representations of the Native Schools system. Auckland: Auckland University Press.

2000

IRI (2000). Māori Mental Health: A Selected Annotated Bibliography. Auckland: International Research Institute for Maori and Indigenous Education.

Cram, F. & Lenihan, Te M. (IRI, in conjunction with Te Rōpū Rangahau Hauora a Eru Pōmare) (2000). Māori Research Development, Vol. 2. Kaupapa Māori Providers. Research Report to Te Puni Kōkiri, Wellington. June 2000. 51pp.

Cram, F., Pihama, L & Philip-Barbara, G. (2000). Māori and genetic engineering. A Research Report to Te Puni Kōkiri, Wellington. 178pp.

Cram, F. & Pipi, K. (IRI, in conjunction with Te Rōpū Rangahau Hauora a Eru Pōmare) (2000). Māori Research Development, Vol. 1. Māori Provider Success. Research Report to Te Puni Kōkiri, Wellington. June 2000. 51pp.

Hohepa, M.K., Cram, F. & Tocker, K. (2000). Te Tari Tautoko: A management support programme for Kura Kaupapa Māori. Evaluation report - Phase Two. Auckland UniServices Limited, prepared for the Ministry of Education.

Jackson, S., Cram, F. & Seymour, F. (2000). Experiences of violence and sexual coercion in high school students’ dating relationships. Journal of Family Violence, 15, 23-36.

Te Rōpū Rangahau Hauora a Eru Pōmare (2000). Mauri Tu: The Tomoana Resource Centre – An intervention following job loss. Social Policy Journal of New Zealand - He Puna Whakaaro, 15, 55-68.

Older publications

Keefe, V., Ormsby C., Robson, B., Reid, P., Cram, F. & Purdie, G. (1999). Kaupapa Māori meets retrospective cohort. He Pukenga Kōrero, 5, 12-17.

Cram, F. (1999). Conducting socially responsible research. Journal of Language & Social Psychology, 18, 336-341. [Book review]

Cram, F. (1999). Intervening in disparities. Talk given at the Health Research Council conference ‘A Decade of Change – consequences to health’, Wellington, 10 September 1999. In Health Research Council (1999). A decade of change: consequences for health. Auckland: HRC.

Cram, F. & Ng, S.H. (1999). Consumer socialisation. Applied Psychology, 48, 297-312.

Cram, F., Karehana, M. & Pitama, S. (1999). He Oranga Poutama: Third year evaluation report. Report to the Hillary Commission. 57pp.

Cram, F., Pihama, L. & Karehana, M. (1999). Meeting the Needs of Māori Victims of Crime. Report to Te Puni Kōkiri/Ministry of Māori Affairs. 104pp.

Cram, F., Pihama, L., Karehana, M. & McCreanor, T. (1999). Evaluation of the Framework for Measuring the Effectiveness of Corrections Programmes for Māori. A Report to the Department of Corrections. Commissioned by the Department of Corrections, Wellington. 89pp.

Smith, L.T., Cram, F., Smith, G.H. & Tunks, M. (1999). Te Hiringa i te Mahara: A report of workload issues for Māori secondary school teachers. Ministry of Education. 95pp.

Cram, F., Kempton, M. & Armstrong, S. (1998). Evaluation Report: Te Whare Tirohanga Maori, Hawkes Bay Regional Prison. Wellington: Department of Corrections. 144pp.

Cram, F. & Pitama, S. (1998). He Oranga Poutama. Second year evaluation report. Commissioned by Te Puni Kokiri, July. 74pp.

Howden-Chapman, P. & Cram, F. (1998). Social, cultural and economic determinants of health. Paper prepared for the National Health and Disability Services Committee, March. 76pp.

Matthews, B., Dickinson, A. & Cram, F. (1998). Establishment and evaluation of a preschool asthma programme: A pilot study. Nursing Praxis in New Zealand, 13, 25-34.

Cram, F. & Pitama, S. (1998). Ko tōku whānau, ko tōku mana. In V. Adair & R. Dixon (Eds.), The family in Aotearoa New Zealand. Auckland: Addison Wesley Longman, pp.130-157.

Pocock, T. & Cram, F. (1998). Children: Hidden victims of violence against women. In F. Seymour & M-E. Pipe (Eds.), Psychology and family law. Dunedin: University of Otago Press. pp.67-82.

Cram, F. (1997). Developing partnerships in research: Māori research and Pākehā researchers. SITES, 35, 44-63.

Cram, F., Keefe, V., Ormsby, C., Ormsby, W. & Ngāti Kahungunu Iwi Inc. (1997). Memorywork and Māori Health Research: Discussion of a Qualitative Method. He Pukenga Kōrero, 3, 37-45.

Cram, F. & Pitama, S. (1997). Evaluation of Māori Family Violence Programmes. Commissioned by Te Puni Kōkiri, Wellington. Prepared in conjunction with the James Henare Māori Research Centre, University of Auckland.

Cram, F., Reid, P. & Keefe, V. (1997). Destigmatisation project: Community attitudes towards people with mental illness. Stage 2: Pre-testing with Māori. Prepared for John Boyd, Ministry of Health. Wellington: Eru Pōmare Māori Health Research Centre.

Reid, P., Cram, F. & Panapa, A. (1997). Destigmatisation project: Community attitudes towards people with mental illness Stage 1: Pre-research with Māori. Prepared for John Boyd, Ministry of Health. Wellington: Eru Pōmare Māori Health Research Centre.

Smith, L.T. & Cram, F. (1997). An evaluation of the Community Panel Diversion Pilot Project. Commissioned by the Crime Prevention Unit, Office of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, Wellington.

Cram, F. (1996). Foetus and embryo research. In J. McMillan & K. Hall (Eds.), Bioethics Research Centre Summer Seminar 1996. Dunedin: University of Otago Press, pp. 43-45.

Cram, F., Ng, S.H. & Jhaveri, N. (1996). Young people's understanding of private and public ownership: Descriptive and experimental studies. In A. Furnham & R. Lunt (Eds.), Economic socialisation: The economic beliefs and behaviours of young people. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. pp.110-129.

Pocock, T. & Cram, F. (1996). Children of battered women. Waikato Law Review, 77-100.

Austin, P., Cram, F., & Kearns, R. (1995). The experience of home and neighbourhood of older people in Auckland, Proceedings of the 18th Conference: New Zealand Geographical Society, University of Canterbury, 27-30, August 1995.

Cram, F., Doherty, L. & Pocock, T. (1995). Bullying at school: A Manukau North Special Education Service survey of school students. Wellington: Special Education Services.

Wolfenden, J., Cram, F. & Kirkwood, B. (1995). Marine reserves in New Zealand: A survey of community reactions. Ocean & Coastal Management, 25, 31-51.

Cram, F. (1994). Ethics in Māori research. In Proceedings of the Bicultural Issues symposium at the 1993 New Zealand Psychological Society Conference.

Cram, F. (Ed.) (1994). Doing Gender, Volume 1. Department of Psychology, University of Auckland.

Cram, F. & Ng, S.H. (1994). Children's understanding of public ownership. European Journal of Social Psychology, 24, 469-480.

Cram, F. & McCreanor, T. (1993). Towards a psychology for Aotearoa. In Cram, F. & Nairn, R. (Eds.), New Zealand Psychological Society Bulletin, March. Special Issue on the Treaty of Waitangi and Bicultural Issues for Psychologists.

Cram, F. & Nairn, R. (1993). (Eds.), New Zealand Psychological Society Bulletin, March. Special Issue on the Treaty of Waitangi and Bicultural Issues for Psychologists.

Cram, F. & Paton, H. (1993). Personal possessions and self-identity: The experiences of elderly women in three residential settings. Australian Journal on Ageing, 12, 19-24.

Ng, S.H., Jenkins, L., Dixon, A., & Cram, F. (1992). Nurses and their work / Te mahi naahi. Wellington: Department of Health.

Paton, H. & Cram, F. (1992). Personal possessions and environmental control: The experiences of elderly women in three residential settings. Journal of Women & Aging, 4, 61-78.

Ng, S.H., Cram, F., & Jenkins, L. (1991). A proportional hazards regression analysis of employee turnover among nurses in New Zealand. Human Relations, 44, 1313-1330.

Cram, F. (1990). Bicultural initiatives within the Department of Psychology. In Developing departmental structures to better reflect the needs of Maori students. A report arising out of a HERO workshop, 25 May 1990, Waipapa Marae, University of Auckland.

Cram, F. & Ng, S.H. (1989). Children's endorsement of ownership attributes. Journal of Economic Psychology, 10, 63-75.

Ng, S.H. & Cram, F. (1988). Intergroup bias by defensive and offensive groups in majority and minority conditions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 749-757.

Ng, S.H., Cram, F., & Dixon, A. (1988). Mutual feelings: Hospital- and technical institute-trained nurses. New Zealand Nursing Journal. May, 23-28.

Ng, S.H. & Cram, F. (1987). Polarization of ingroup bias in secure and insecure groups. The Journal of Social Psychology, 127, 589-594.

Ng, S.H. & Cram, F. (1986). Complementary and antagonistic intergroup differentiations by New Zealand nurses. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 15, 68-77.